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Space Weather Bill Passes Congress

By Doug Messier
Parabolic Arc
September 17, 2020
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The Sun sends out a constant stream of particles and energy, which drives a complex space weather system near Earth and can affect spacecraft and astronauts. NASA has chosen five new mission concept studies for further development to study various aspects of this dynamic system. (Credits: NASA)

by Douglas Messier
Managing Editor

A bill to reorganize the nation’s response to space weather has passed both houses of Congress and heads to the White House for President Donald Trump’s signature.

The Promoting Research and Observations of Space Weather to Improve the Forecasting of Tomorrow Act (PROSwift) assigns roles to federal departments and establishes an interagency working group to coordinate their activities.

Coronal mass ejections from the sun can disrupt satellites, ground communications, electrical grids, aviation, navigation and other vital services.

PROSwift assigns the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) with the task of developing and implementing a coordinated federal effort to observe, predict and respond to space weather events.

OSTP would work with agencies to develop an integrated strategy for sustaining and expanding Earth- and space-based measurements essential for space weather research, modeling and forecasting.

PROSwift would establish an interagency space weather working group with representatives from:

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • NASA
  • Department of Defense (DoD)
  • National Science Foundation (NSF)
  • Department of the Interior
  • Any other agencies deemed necessary.

NOAA would establish a 15-member space weather advisory group composed of five representatives apiece from academia, commercial space weather sector, and the non-governmental end user community.

“The advisory group shall conduct a comprehensive survey of the needs of users of space weather products to identify the space weather research, observations, forecasting, prediction, and modeling advances required to improve space weather products,” the bill said.

PROSwift assigns specific roles to the following federal agencies:

NOAA: provide operational space weather monitoring, forecasting, and long-term data archiving and access for civil applications; maintain ground-based and space-based assets needed for space weather forecasting, prediction, and warnings; conduct research to support operational responsibilities; and develop requirements for space weather forecasting technologies and science.

NASA: conduct basic research into space weather and the Sun-Earth system; perform space-based observations and modeling; and develop new space-based technologies and missions.

DOD: conduct operational space weather research, monitoring and forecasting for defense needs.

FAA: provide operational requirements for space weather services in support of aviation; coordinate with the International Civil Aviation Organization; and integrate space weather data and products into the Next Generation Air Transportation System.

NSF: provide increased understanding of the Sun-Earth system through ground-based measurements, technologies and modeling.

Department of the Interior: collect, distribute, and archive operational ground-based magnetometer data; work with the international community to improve global geophysical monitoring; and develop crustal conductivity models to assess and mitigate risks from space weather-induced electric ground currents.

The bill also gives NOAA the authority to launch a pilot space weather program.

PROSwift directs federal agencies to “increase engagement and cooperation with the international community, academic community, and commercial space weather sector on the observational infrastructure, data, and scientific research necessary to advance the monitoring, forecasting, and prediction of, preparation for, and protection from, space weather phenomena.”

The measure also directs NOAA to work with NASA, DOD, other federal agencies and international partners to secure reliable backup capability for the near real-time imagery and measurement of coronal mass ejections, solar wind and other relevant observations.

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